Gynecological Care and Screening

For general information about preventive healthcare at UHS, including recommended screening tests and immunizations and how to schedule, see the Preventive Health Page

We recommend that all people consider a yearly Wellness/Preventive Health Visit with a clinician to discuss health concerns and to determine if any needed vaccinations or health screening tests are recommended, particularly if they are sexually active. Please note that wellness care takes time to do well. If you have multiple concerns or complicated problems, your clinician will ask you to make a separate appointment. 

If you have a cervix, you may need a PAP/pelvic exam for cervical cancer screening, depending on your age, sexual practices, and family/medical history.  For people 25 and older with a cervix, cervical cancer screening with a pap plus HPV test or preferably, if available a primary HPV test is recommended every five years.  Cervical cancer screening is no longer recommended from age 21-24 yrs of age.

Please see the Patient Guide to Sensitive Exams to best understand your options should an exam of this nature be required.

Pelvic exam basics

Routine pelvic or "gynecologic" exams are a very important part of health care. This exam provides an opportunity for your clinician to detect and test for abnormalities of the breast, vulva, vagina, cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus.  

You may need more frequent pelvic exams if you have:

  • a history of abnormal PAP test results
  • a history of sexual health problems or risks
  • a family history of certain kinds of cancer
  • a sexually transmitted infection or a sex partner with an infection
  • recurrent vaginal infections or other symptoms
  • or are interested in an insertable contraceptive device like an IUD or diaphragm


Avoid having a routine pelvic exam during your menstrual period. Menstrual blood can affect some laboratory test results. For most people, the most comfortable time to have a gynecologic exam is right after your period ends. Avoid having sexual intercourse or inserting any vaginal medications for about 24 hours before your exam.

How it's done: Speculum exam and PAP smears

To visualize the vagina and cervix, your clinician will use a vaginal speculum. This speculum is placed into your vaginal opening and after applying gentle pressure to open the speculum, the vaginal walls and cervix can be seen. This portion of the exam is short and will usually not last more than a few minutes. Your clinician may also perform a physical exam of your external genital anatomy and may place 1 or 2 fingers into your vagina while pressing on your abdomen to feel the mobility and size of your uterus and ovaries.  

For people 25 and older with a cervix, cervical cancer screening with a pap plus HPV test or preferably, if available, a primary HPV test is recommended every five years. Cervical cancer screening is no longer recommended from age 21-24 yrs of age. More frequent screening may be needed in some circumstances. A brush is used to gently swab your cervix and the cells are visualized under a microscope for any abnormalities.

How it's done: Breast exam

In addition to the gynecological exam, in some cases, a clinician may also perform a clinical breast exam in order to check for lumps or other abnormalities. During your exam, your clinician can teach you about normal anatomy and will advise whether you need further screening tests like ultrasound or mammography.

A few more suggestions to prepare for your visit

Make a list of the questions you want to ask your healthcare provider. Consider writing these questions down on a piece of paper or storing them on your phone so that it is easier to remember to ask these questions during the appointment.

  • Ask if you can have a friend in the room with you if you think you would feel more comfortable with another person present.
  • Inform your clinician at the beginning of the visit if you have any of the following symptoms:
    • Abdominal pain or cramping
    • Abdominal lump, swelling, or bloating
    • Abnormal vaginal bleeding, spotting, or discharge
    • Pain with intercourse
    • Breast lump, pain, or discharge
    • Fever
    • Abnormal bleeding or irregular menses
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Persistent digestive problems

Ready to schedule a Preventive Health and/or PAP visit? Click here to schedule your visit!

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